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Validation and determination of nine PFCS in surface water and sediment samples using UPLC-QTOF-MS.

Environmental monitoring and assessment (2018-05-17)
B O Fagbayigbo, B O Opeolu, O S Fatoki, O S Olatunji
ABSTRACT

In this study, an analytical method for the routine determination of nine perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-QTOF-MS), was developed, validated, and used for their assay in surface water and sediments. The method yielded good linearity with a correlation coefficient (R2) ranging between 0.991 and 0.999 for all the compounds investigated. Limits of detection (LOD) ranged between 0.02 and 0.08 ng/l, while the limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.065 to 0.261 ng/l. Recovery studies were carried out in replicate assays, and percentage recoveries ranged between 56 and 112% for the nine perfluorinated compounds investigated. The method was applied to determine levels of perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA) and PFOS in surface water and sediment samples collected along the Plankenburg River in Stellenbosch, South Africa. Samples were pre-treated, extracted, and cleaned up via offline solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedures, using hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) C-18 cartridges. Levels of PFOA and PFOS found in surface water ranged between (12.8 ± 4.24 and 62.62 ± 4.86 ng/l) and (<LOD and 3.8 ng/l), respectively, while levels measured in corresponding sediment samples ranged between 0.14-0.33 ng/g (PFOA) and <LOD and 0.7 ± 0.013 ng/g (PFOS). Concentrations of PFOA and PFOS were suspected to be associated with anthropogenic activities in the vicinity of the sampling areas.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Perfluoropentanoic acid, 97%
Sigma-Aldrich
Perfluorodecanoic acid, 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Tricosafluorododecanoic acid, 95%
Sigma-Aldrich
Perfluorononanoic acid, 97%