Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been frequently detected in both the environment and biota, and have become a growing concern. However, information is limited on the potential sources and human health implications of such exposure. We evaluated the exposure levels of 13 major PFCs among a population (n=633, >12 years of age) in a mid-sized city of Korea, and investigated for their potential dietary sources and the impact on thyroid hormone concentrations. For this purpose, we collected blood samples from a general population in Siheung, Korea and measured for 13 PFCs, total thyroxine (T4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In addition, a questionnaire survey on diet was conducted. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were detected in relatively greater concentrations than the other 9 PFCs in the blood serum. Males tend to have greater concentrations than females for most PFCs, and the concentrations were elevated as age increased up to 50s. Body mass index (BMI) was also shown to influence the serum concentrations of several PFCs. After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, the consumption of vegetable, potato, fish/shellfish, and popcorn was identified to be significantly related with concentrations of major PFCs in blood. Among the studied PFCs, the concentrations of perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) were negatively correlated with total T4, and positively with TSH levels, especially among females. The result of this study will provide information useful for developing public health and safety management measures for PFCs.