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Encapsulating nanoemulsions inside eLiposomes for ultrasonic drug delivery.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids (2012-09-20)
Marjan Javadi, William G Pitt, David M Belnap, Naakaii H Tsosie, Jonathan M Hartley
ABSTRACT

An eLiposome is a liposome encapsulating an emulsion nanodroplet and can be used for drug delivery. For example, therapeutic agents are encapsulated inside the eLiposomes, and the application of ultrasound can cause the emulsion droplet to change from liquid to gas, thus increasing the volume inside the vesicle and causing rupture and the release of the drug. In this research, two different methods were used to prepare eLiposomes. In the first method, emulsion droplets were made of perfluorohexane or perfluoropentane and stabilized with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate. A layer of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was dried in a round-bottomed flask. Then the emulsion suspension was added to the flask. As the suspension hydrated the phospholipids, they formed liposomes around the emulsions. In the second method, emulsions and liposomes were made separately, and then they were mixed using ultrasound. The advantage of this second method compared to the previous one is that eLiposomes can be made with fewer restrictions because of incompatible combinations of surfactants. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy were used to measure the size of the emulsions, liposomes, and eLiposomes. The size of eLiposomes is appropriate for extravasation into tumors with malformed capillary beds. We hypothesize that ultrasound breaks open these eLiposomes. Both types of eLiposomes were constructed with folate attached via a poly(ethylene glycol) tether to induce endocytosis of the eLiposome. The latter eLiposomes were successfully used to deliver calcein as a model drug to HeLa cells.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Tetradecafluorohexane, A mixture of perfluorinated hexanes, 95%
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetradecafluorohexane, 99%