The amino acid glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate CNS. Glycinergic synapses are particularly abundant in spinal cord and brain stem, but are also found in higher brain regions including the hippocampus. The inhibitory actions of glycine
Spectrin is the major component of the protein network, which covers the cytoplasmic surface of vertebrate, erythrocyte membranes. It is a high molecular weight heterodimer, composed of two subunits (molecular weights of approximately 230 kDa and 250 kDa)
Adenylyl cyclases occur throughout the animal kingdom and play diverse roles in cell regulation. In bacteria, the enzyme may be regulated in response to nutrients or it may constitute a toxic factor in mammals, as with adenylyl cyclases of B.
Troponin together with tropomyosin, regulate the binding of myosin to actin. Troponin is a trimeric protein composed of Troponin subunits I, C and T. Troponin C binds calcium ions, Troponin T binds to tropomyosin and troponin I binds
Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) are typical serine/threonine kinases that display the 11 subdomains shared by all kinases. The complete sequence of the Homo sapiens genome shows that among the ~30,000 predicted genes, there are 13 CDKs and 25 cyclins. Eleven
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and related enzymes (more than a hundred coded by the human genome) are more numerous than serine/threonine phosphatases. They belong to four families, three of which possess a conserved cysteine for catalysis and some conserved features
Cholesterol undergoes esterification to improve transport. Cholesterol esters are more easily packaged into the interior of lipoproteins - increasing the quantity that can be readily transported in the blood stream.
The hydrolysis of a minor membrane phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) by a specific phospholipase C (PLC) is one of the earliest key events in the regulation of various cell functions by more than 100 extracellular signaling molecules.
The basic structure of peptidoglycan (PGN) contains a carbohydrate backbone of alternating units of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and Nacetylmuramic acid, with the N-acetylmuramic acid residues cross-linked to peptides.