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Regulation of gammaherpesvirus lytic replication by endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced transcription factors ATF4 and CHOP.

The Journal of biological chemistry (2018-01-07)
Xing-Chen Zhou, Si-Han Dong, Zhong-Shun Liu, Shuai Liu, Chao-Can Zhang, Xiao-Zhen Liang
ABSTRACT

The stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) involves various signaling cross-talks and controls cell fate. B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling, which can trigger UPR, induces gammaherpesvirus lytic replication and serves as a physiological mechanism for gammaherpesvirus reactivation in vivo However, how the UPR regulates BCR-mediated gammaherpesvirus infection is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the ER stressors tunicamycin and thapsigargin inhibit BCR-mediated murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) lytic replication by inducing expression of the UPR mediator Bip and blocking activation of Akt, ERK, and JNK. Both Bip and the downstream transcription factor ATF4 inhibited BCR-mediated MHV68 lytic gene expression, whereas UPR-induced C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) was required for and promoted BCR-mediated MHV68 lytic replication by suppressing upstream Bip and ATF4 expression. Bip knockout was sufficient to rescue BCR-mediated MHV68 lytic gene expression in CHOP knockout cells, and this rescue was blocked by ectopic ATF4 expression. Furthermore, ATF4 directly inhibited promoter activity of the MHV68 lytic switch transactivator RTA. Altogether, we show that ER stress-induced CHOP inhibits Bip and ATF4 expression and that ATF4, in turn, plays a critical role in CHOP-mediated regulation of BCR-controlled MHV68 lytic replication. We conclude that ER stress-mediated UPR and BCR signaling pathways are interconnected and form a complex network to regulate the gammaherpesvirus infection cycle.

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