Reduced Sulfation Enhanced Oxytosis and Ferroptosis in Mouse Hippocampal HT22 Cells.

Biomolecules (2020-01-16)
Haruna Nagase, Yasuhiro Katagiri, Kentaro Oh-Hashi, Herbert M Geller, Yoko Hirata

Sulfation is a common modification of extracellular glycans, tyrosine residues on proteins, and steroid hormones, and is important in a wide variety of signaling pathways. We investigated the role of sulfation on endogenous oxidative stress, such as glutamate-induced oxytosis and erastin-induced ferroptosis, using mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. Sodium chlorate competitively inhibits the formation of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate, the high energy sulfate donor in cellular sulfation reactions. The treatment of HT22 cells with sodium chlorate decreased sulfation of heparan sulfate proteoglycans and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Sodium chlorate and β-d-xyloside, which prevents proteoglycan glycosaminoglycan chain attachment, exacerbated both glutamate- and erastin-induced cell death, suggesting that extracellular matrix influenced oxytosis and ferroptosis. Moreover, sodium chlorate enhanced the generation of reactive oxygen species and influx of extracellular Ca2+ in the process of oxytosis and ferroptosis. Interestingly, sodium chlorate did not affect antioxidant glutathione levels. Western blot analysis revealed that sodium chlorate enhanced erastin-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation, which is preferentially activated by cell stress-inducing signals. Collectively, our findings indicate that sulfation is an important modification for neuroprotection against oxytosis and ferroptosis in neuronal hippocampal cells.

Referencia del producto
Descripción del producto

Phthaldialdehyde, suitable for HPLC fluorimetric detection of amino acids, ≥99% (HPLC), powder
Erastin, ≥98% (HPLC)
4-Methylumbelliferyl-β-D-xylopyranoside, β-xylosidase substrate