Nanofibrillated bacterial cellulose (NFBC) is produced by culturing a cellulose-producing bacterium under agitated aerobic conditions in a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)-supplemented medium. Detailed structural analyses revealed that NFBC fiber widths varied with the degree of substitution of the CMC used, and zeta potential values decreased with the increment of CMC concentration in the medium. Transmission electron microscopy observation after immunostaining demonstrated that CMC molecules were present on the NFBC microfibril surfaces. We tested NFBC for utility as a binder for a display device that uses electrochromic (EC) material. Introduction of a quaternary ammonium group into the EC molecules enhanced their interactions with the negatively charged NFBC microfibrils. A casting process homogeneously adsorbed the EC molecules onto the surface of a transparent electrode with NFBC. A homogeneous color change was successfully observed upon applying an electric field, suggesting that NFBC could be used as a binder material for uniform surface adsorption.