Probiotics and prebiotics are known to regulate immune responses. A synbiotic is a product that combines probiotics and prebiotics in a single dosage form. In this study, we attempt to present the effects of a multispecies synbiotic on intestinal mucosa immune responses after exposure to Escherichia coli O55:B5 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Totally 21 male Balb/c mice were randomly classified into two groups. The K-I group received LPS and a synbiotic, and the K-II group received LPS alone. The synbiotic was administered for 21 consecutive days, whereas LPS was administered once on the 15th day. Specifically, a synbiotic containing 1 × 109 colony forming units (CFUs) of the probiotic combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus PXN 35, L. casei subsp. casei PXN 37, L. rhamnosus PXN 54, L. bulgaricus PXN 39, Bifidobacterium breve PXN 25, B. infantis PXN 27 and Streptococcus thermophilus PXN 66 and the prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharide was administered through an orogastric tube. Immunohistochemistry was performed to measure immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels for humoral immune responses and CD4+ and CD8+ levels for cellular immune responses. An independent-samples t-test revealed significant increases of the numbers of IgA- (p = 0.027) and CD4-expressing cells (p = 0.009) but not the number of CD8-expressing cells in the K-I group compared with those in the K-II group. The multispecies synbiotic had immunoregulatory effects on IgA and CD4 expression in LPS-exposed mice.
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