The role of diurnal fluctuations in excitatory amino acid carrier 1 levels in post-ischemic hippocampal Zn2+ accumulation.

Experimental neurology (2020-12-01)
Takaaki Aratake, Youichirou Higashi, Tomoya Hamada, Yusuke Ueba, Takahiro Shimizu, Shogo Shimizu, Toshio Yawata, Tetsuya Ueba, Motoaki Saito

Accumulating evidence indicates time-of-day variations in ischemic neuronal injury. Under ischemic conditions, Zn2+ is massively released from hippocampal glutamatergic neurons, and intracellular Zn2+ accumulation results in neuron death. Notably, excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1), known as a cysteine transporter, is involved in Zn2+ homeostasis, and its expressions exhibit a diurnal fluctuation. This study aimed to investigate whether time of day of an ischemic insult affects Zn2+ accumulation and neuronal injury and determine whether altered Zn2+ accumulation is modulated by EAAC1 diurnal fluctuation in the hippocampus in a mouse model of ischemic stroke. Mice subjected to transient global ischemia for 40 min at Zeitgeber time 18 (ZT18) (23:00) exhibited reduced Zn2+ accumulation and neuronal death in the hilar region of the hippocampus compared to those at ZT4 (09:00). The EAAC1 protein expression in the hippocampus was increased at ZT18 relative to ZT4. Intracerebroventricular injection of a non-selective excitatory amino acid transporter inhibitor, DL-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartate, or a selective EAAC1 inhibitor, L-aspartic acid β-hydroxamate, increased ischemia-induced Zn2+ accumulation and neuronal death in the hilus at ZT18. These findings suggest that ischemia-induced Zn2+ accumulation displays circadian fluctuations through diurnal variations in EAAC1 expressions and affects susceptibility to ischemic neuronal injury in the hippocampal hilar region.

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Dihydrokainic acid, ≥98% (HPLC), powder