Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of cysteine-free coprisin nonapeptides.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications (2013-12-11)
Jaeho Lee, Daeun Lee, Hyemin Choi, Ha Hyung Kim, Ho Kim, Jae Sam Hwang, Dong Gun Lee, Jae Il Kim

Coprisin is a 43-mer defensin-like peptide from the dung beetle, Copris tripartitus. CopA3 (LLCIALRKK-NH₂), a 9-mer peptide containing a single free cysteine residue at position 3 of its sequence, was derived from the α-helical region of coprisin and exhibits potent antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. The single cysteine implies a tendency for dimerization; however, it remains unknown whether this cysteine residue is indispensible for CopA3's antimicrobial activity. To address this issue, in the present study we synthesized eight cysteine-substituted monomeric CopA3 analogs and two dimeric analogs, CopA3 (Dimer) and CopIK (Dimer), and evaluated their antimicrobial effects against bacteria and fungi, as well as their hemolytic activity toward human erythrocytes. Under physiological conditions, CopA3 (Mono) exhibits a 6/4 (monomer/dimer) molar ratio in HPLC area percent, indicating that its effects on bacterial strains likely reflect a CopA3 (Mono)/CopA3 (Dimer) mixture. We also report the identification of CopW, a new cysteine-free nonapeptide derived from CopA3 that has potent antimicrobial activity with virtually no hemolytic activity. Apparently, the cysteine residue in CopA3 is not essential for its antimicrobial function. Notably, CopW also exhibited significant synergistic activity with ampicillin and showed more potent antifungal activity than either wild-type coprisin or melittin.

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L-Cysteine, ≥97%, FG
L-Cysteine, 97%
L-Cysteine, BioUltra, ≥98.5% (RT)
L-Cysteine, from non-animal source, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, ≥98%
L-Cysteine, certified reference material, TraceCERT®
L-Cysteine, produced by Wacker Chemie AG, Burghausen, Germany, ≥98.0%