Alzheimer's disease (AD) exerts a heavy health burden for modern society and has a complicated pathological background. The accumulation of extracellular β-amyloid (Aβ) is crucial in AD pathogenesis, and Aβ-initiated secondary pathological processes could independently lead to neuronal degeneration and pathogenesis in AD. Thus, the development of combination therapeutics that can not only accelerate Aβ clearance but also simultaneously protect neurons or inhibit other subsequent pathological cascade represents a promising strategy for AD intervention. Here, we designed a nanostructure, monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1)-modified reconstituted high density lipoprotein (GM1-rHDL), that possesses antibody-like high binding affinity to Aβ, facilitates Aβ degradation by microglia, and Aβ efflux across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), displays high brain biodistribution efficiency following intranasal administration, and simultaneously allows the efficient loading of a neuroprotective peptide, NAP, as a nanoparticulate drug delivery system for the combination therapy of AD. The resulting multifunctional nanostructure, αNAP-GM1-rHDL, was found to be able to protect neurons from Aβ(1-42) oligomer/glutamic acid-induced cell toxicity better than GM1-rHDL in vitro and reduced Aβ deposition, ameliorated neurologic changes, and rescued memory loss more efficiently than both αNAP solution and GM1-rHDL in AD model mice following intranasal administration with no observable cytotoxicity noted. Taken together, this work presents direct experimental evidence of the rational design of a biomimetic nanostructure to serve as a safe and efficient multifunctional nanoplatform for the combination therapy of AD.