Epithelium-specific Ets transcription factor 1 (ESE-1) is a member of the E26 transformation-specific family of transcription factors that has an epithelial-restricted constitutive expression but is induced by inflammatory stimuli in non-epithelial cells. Here we report that ESE-1 is constitutively expressed in human, but not in murine, neutrophils and that ESE-1 is modestly upregulated in septic patient neutrophils. In normal human neutrophils, ESE-1 was detected at both RNA and protein levels but was found to be an unstable nuclear protein ex vivo. ESE-1 transcription was also induced during all-trans retinoic acid-mediated HL-60 differentiation, a human promyelocytic cell line often used as an in vitro model of human neutrophils. Elf3-/- mice had normal neutrophils but a reduced number of circulating B-lymphocytes. These findings indicate a potential role of ESE-1 in regulating human neutrophil differentiation and function, and that it has different roles in the immune system of different species.