• Home
  • Search Results
  • The effect of temperature on the catalytic conversion of Kraft lignin using near-critical water.

The effect of temperature on the catalytic conversion of Kraft lignin using near-critical water.

Bioresource technology (2014-08-20)
Thi Dieu Huyen Nguyen, Marco Maschietti, Lars-Erik Åmand, Lennart Vamling, Lars Olausson, Sven-Ingvar Andersson, Hans Theliander
ABSTRACT

The catalytic conversion of suspended LignoBoost Kraft lignin was performed in near-critical water using ZrO2/K2CO3 as the catalytic system and phenol as the co-solvent and char suppressing agent. The reaction temperature was varied from 290 to 370°C and its effect on the process was investigated in a continuous flow (1kg/h). The yields of water-soluble organics (WSO), bio-oil and char (dry lignin basis) were in the ranges of 5-11%, 69-87% and 16-22%, respectively. The bio-oil, being partially deoxygenated, exhibited higher carbon content and heat value, but lower sulphur content than lignin. The main 1-ring aromatics (in WSO and diethylether-soluble bio-oil) were anisoles, alkylphenols, catechols and guaiacols. The results show that increasing temperature increases the yield of 1-ring aromatics remarkably, while it increases the formation of char moderately. An increase in the yields of anisoles, alkylphenols and catechols, together with a decrease in the yield of guaiacols, was also observed.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol solution, BioReagent, Equilibrated with 10 mM Tris HCl, pH 8.0, 1 mM EDTA, for molecular biology
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. Ph. Eur., 99.0-100.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Anisole, anhydrous, 99.7%
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, for molecular biology
Sigma-Aldrich
Liquified Phenol, ≥89.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, BioXtra, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol solution, Saturated with 0.1 M citrate buffer, pH 4.3 ± 0.2, BioReagent, for molecular biology
Sigma-Aldrich
1,2-Dihydroxybenzene, ReagentPlus®, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
m-Cresol, 99%
Supelco
Phenol, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde, 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Guaiacol, natural, ≥99%, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Guaiacol, oxidation indicator
Sigma-Aldrich
Pyrocatechol, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Anisole, ReagentPlus®, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
p-Cresol, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, contains hypophosphorous as stabilizer, loose crystals, ACS reagent, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
o-Cresol, ReagentPlus®, ≥99%
Supelco
Guaiacol, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Supelco
m-Cresol, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, unstabilized, ReagentPlus®, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, 99.5-100.5% (GC)
Supelco
Phenol solution, certified reference material, 500 μg/mL in methanol
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, BioUltra, for molecular biology, TE-saturated, ~73% (T)
Supelco
Phenol, PESTANAL®, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, puriss., ≥99.5% (GC), meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, crystalline (detached)
Sigma-Aldrich
o-Cresol, ≥99%
Supelco
p-Cresol, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
m-Cresol, ≥98%, FG