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A recyclable chitosan-based QCM biosensor for sensitive and selective detection of breast cancer cells in real time.

The Analyst (2014-10-15)
Shaolian Zhang, Haihua Bai, Jinmei Luo, Peihui Yang, Jiye Cai
ABSTRACT

A highly sensitive and recyclable quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor was developed using chitosan (CS) and folic acid (FA), generating conjugates that are selectively recognized by MCF-7 cancer cell over-expressed folic acid receptors. The prepared CS-FA conjugate was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy further presented the morphology of the CS-FA conjugate interface. The hydrophilicity of films was characterized by measuring the contact angle. The recognition of MCF-7 cancer cells was investigated in situ using QCM. Captured by FA, the concentration of the MCF-7 cell was determined on-line using a quartz crystal microbalance and a wide linear range of 4.5 × 10(2) to 1.01 × 10(5) cells per mL was obtained, with a detection limit of 430 cells per mL. The fluorescence microscope further confirmed the specificity and biocompatibility of the constructed biosensor. In addition, the regeneration of the QCM biosensor was studied by using lysozyme. This receptor-bound ligand based QCM biosensor also showed good selectivity, and repeatability in the cell mixture. For the first time, this simple, economical and label-free chitosan-based QCM sensing was demonstrated, and such design could provide a promising detection strategy for sensitive detection of cancer cell over-expressed folic acid receptors.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Folic acid, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Folic acid, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Folic acid, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, suitable for plant cell culture, ≥97%
Sigma-Aldrich
Folic acid, ≥97%
Hydrocortisone for peak identification, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
USP
Folic acid, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Folic acid, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Supelco
Hydrocortisone, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrocortisone, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrocortisone, ≥98% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrocortisone, γ-irradiated, powder, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrocortisone, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
USP
Hydrocortisone, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Hydrocortisone, British Pharmacopoeia (BP) Assay Standard
Hydrocortisone, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard