Galectin-9 (UniProt O00182; also known as Ecalectin, Gal-9, Tumor antigen HOM-HD-21, Urate transporter/channel protein) is encoded by the LGALS9 (also known as HUAT, LGALS9A) gene (Gene ID 3965) in human. The beta-galactoside-binding lectin, Galectin-9, possesses two distinct carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) linked together by a peptide domain of different length among the S, M, and L spliced isoforms. Galectin-9 plays a key role in a negative feed-back mechanism against Th1 immune response, where galectin-9 production from various cell types (e.g. fibroblasts and endothelial cells) is induced by interferon-gamma produced by CD4+ Th1 lymphocytes. The up-regulated galectin-9 in turn suppresses CD4+ Th1 lymphocytes, at least in part through stimulation of the Tim-3 receptor. The Tim-3 receptor on CD4+ Th1 cells from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis, and auto-immune hepatitis is defective in its response to galectin-9. In addition, excessive galectin-9 production is reported in two human diseases associated with oncogenic viruses, nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and chronic infection by the hepatitis C virus (HCV).
Clone 1G3 reacts with all three (L, M, and S) galectin-9 isoforms, but not galectin 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, or 10.
GST-tagged recombinant protein corresponding to human Galectin-9.
This Anti-Galectin-9 Antibody, clone 1G3 is validated for use in Western Blotting, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), ELISA and Immunocytochemistry for the detection of Galectin-9.
Immunohistochemistry Analysis: A representative lot detected galectin-9 immunoreactivity in hepatocytes as well as inflammatory leucocytes and Kupffer cells in paraffin-embedded liver sections from patients with hepatitis C or B infection, but not in non-infected liver specimens (Barjon, C., et al. (2012). Infect Agent Cancer. 7(1):16-26).
Immunohistochemistry Analysis: A representative lot detected galectin-9 immunoreactivity in malignant cells using various paraffin-embedded nasopharangeal carcinoma (NPC) tissue sections (Barjon, C., et al. (2012). Infect Agent Cancer. 7(1):16-26).
Western Blotting Analysis: A representative lot detected endogenous galectin-9 isoforms in HeLa, lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) REMB1, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines C15 & C666-1, as well as exogenously expressed galectin-9 isoforms in transfected HeLa cells, but not in Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) BL2 cells (Barjon, C., et al. (2012). Infect Agent Cancer. 7(1):16-26).
ELISA Analysis: A representative lot selectively captured human & murine galectin-9 (mGal-9 M, hGAL-9 S & M isoforms), but not human galectin 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, or 10 (Barjon, C., et al. (2012). Infect Agent Cancer. 7(1):16-26).
Immunocytochemistry Analysis: A representative lot detected galectin-9 immunoreactivity in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) REMB1, but not in Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) BL2 cells (Barjon, C., et al. (2012). Infect Agent Cancer. 7(1):16-26).
Evaluated by Western Blotting in HeLa nuclear extract.
Western Blotting Analysis: 0.5 µg/mL of this antibody detected Galectin-9 in 10 µg of HeLa nuclear extract.
Description de la cible
~38 kDa observed
Concentration: Please refer to lot specific datasheet.