Gutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD; E.C. 184.108.40.206) is the enzyme responsible for the conversion of glutamic acid to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory transmitter in higher brain regions, and putative paracrine hormone in pancreatic islets. Two molecular forms of GAD (65 kDa and 67 kDa, 64% aa identity between forms) are highly conserved and both forms are expressed in the CNS, pancreatic islet cells, testis, oviduct and ovary. The isoforms are regionally distributed cytoplasmically in the brains of rats and mice (Sheikh, 1999). GAD65 is an amphiphilic, membrane-anchored protein (585 a.a.), encoded on human chromosome 10, and is responsible for vesicular GABA production. GAD67 is cytoplasmic (594 a.a.), encoded on chromosome 2, and seems to be responsible for significant cytoplasmic GABA production. GAD expression changes during neural development in rat spinal cord. GAD65 is expressed transiently in commissural axons around E13 but is down regulated the next day while GAD67 expression increases mostly in the somata of those neurons (Phelps, 1999). In mature rat pancreas, GAD65 and GAD67 appear to be differentially localized, GAD65 primarily in insulin-containing beta cells and GAD67 in glucagon-containing (A) cells (Li, 1995). GAD67 expression seems to be particularly plastic and can change in response to experimental manipulation (for example neuronal stimulation or transection) or disease progression and emergent disorders like schizophrenia (Volk, 2000). Colocalization of the two GAD isoforms also shows changes in GAD65/GAD67 distributions correlated with certain disease states such as IDDM and SMS.
Reacts with the 67kDa isoform of Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD67) of rat, mouse and human origins, other species not yet tested. No detectable cross reactivity with GAD65 by Western blot on rat brain lysate when compared to blot probed with AB1511 that reacts with both GAD65 & GAD67.
Recombinant GAD67 protein
Research Sub Category
Neurotransmitters & Receptors
Neuronal & Glial Markers
This Anti-GAD Antibody, clone 1G10.2 is validated for use in IH, IH(P), WB for the detection of GAD67. This Anti GAD antibody has more than 75 product citations.
Western Blot: A 1:5,000-1:10,000 dilution was used on a previous lot using ECL on rat and mouse brain lysate.
Immunohistochemistry on 4% paraformaldehyde fixed mouse and rat tissue: 1:1,000-1:5,000. The antibody has also worked well on human tissue fixed for 10 minutes in 4% PFA at 4°C or 100% ethanol at +20°C or 100% acetone at -20°C at dilutions of 1:2,500-1:5,000.
A polyclonal to GAD67 is also available as AB5992.
Optimal working dilutions must be determined by end user.
Routinely evaluated by immunohistochemistry by SKNSH cell lysate.
Representative staining pattern and morphology of GAD67 in somatosensory 1, barrel field of the mouse cerebral cortex. All brown spots are Lamina VI a neurons. No Epitope retrieval was necessary. This lot of the antibody was diluted to 1:500, using IHC Select Detection with HRP-DAB.
Optimal Staining pattern/morphology of GAD67: Mouse Brain.
Replaces: AB5992; AB5862P
Protein A purified
Purified mouse monoclonal IgG2a in buffer containing 0.1% sodium azide
Storage and Stability
Stable for 6 months at 2-8ºC in undiluted aliquots from date of receipt.
SKNSH cell lysate (human neuroblastoma), mouse cerebral cortex.
Concentration: Please refer to the Certificate of Analysis for the lot-specific concentration.
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