Hyaluronidase is widely present in nature. In humans, it is present in a number of organs and body fluids. Hyaluronidase is found in the secretions of virus, bacteriophage, fungi and bacteria. It is also present in nematode and leeches secretions. Snakes and scorpions produce hyaluronidase in their venom. Hyaluronidase is also secreted by bees, spiders, wasps, hornets, caterpillars, fishes and lizards.
Hyaluronidase from Streptomyces hyalurolyticus
has been used:
- in the preparation of DMEM/F-12 (Dulbecco′s modified eagle medium/nutrient mixture F-12) media for the isolation and purification of single cells from dissociated tumour tissue
- as a component of digestion solution for the derivation of germline stem cells from testicular tissue
Hyaluronate lyase cleaves hyaluronic acid at the β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcA bond, yielding 3-(4-deoxy-β-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine tetra- and hexasaccharides. Unlike other hyaluronidases, this enzyme is specific for hyaluronic acid and is inactive with chondroitin and chondroitin sulfate.
Hyaluronidase is an endoglycosidase and performs its function along with exoglycosidases, like β-glucuronidase and β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase. Hyaluronidase regulates the hyaluronic acid turnover.
One unit will cause a change in % transmittance at 600 nm of 0.330 per minute at pH 5.35 at 37 °C in a 2.0 mL reaction mixture (45 minute assay).