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(−)-Nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt

≥98% (TLC), powder

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(−)-1-Methyl-2-(3-pyridyl)pyrrolidine (+)-bitartrate salt
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
C10H14N2 · 2C4H6O6
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
EC Number:
PubChem Substance ID:


≥98% (TLC)




white to off-white


H2O: 50 mg/mL

SMILES string




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Biochem/physiol Actions

Prototype nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist; naturally occurring isomer.

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(-)-Nicotine for synthesis




Adam J Prus et al.
Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior, 91(1), 150-154 (2008-07-23)
The Lewis (LEW) strain of rat appears more sensitive to nicotine than other strains in self-administration, conditioned place preference, and drug discrimination behavioral studies. The present study sought to further evaluate the behavioral effects of chronic nicotine treatment in the
Jhodie R Duncan et al.
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 107(5), 1579-1590 (2009-09-05)
During pregnancy, exposure to nicotine and other compounds in cigarette smoke increases the risk of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) two- to fivefold. Serotonergic (5-HT) abnormalities are found, in infants who die of SIDS, in regions of the medulla
Song Xue et al.
Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 22(2), 172-179 (2018-11-20)
Tobacco is highly addictive, and after the development of dependence, it is difficult to quit smoking. Therefore, it is important to understand the factors that play a role in the initiation of smoking. The rewarding effects of nicotine play a
Jonathan D Raybuck et al.
Behavioral neuroscience, 122(5), 1166-1171 (2008-10-01)
Varenicline, a partial agonist for a4ss2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and full agonist for a7 nAChRs, has been approved for the treatment of smoking cessation. Although recent clinical trials support the efficacy of varenicline for managing global nicotine withdrawal symptoms
J D Raybuck et al.
The European journal of neuroscience, 29(2), 377-387 (2009-02-10)
Nicotine alters cognitive processes that include working memory and long-term memory. Trace fear conditioning may involve working memory during acquisition while also allowing the assessment of long-term memory. The present study used trace fear conditioning in C57BL/6 mice to investigate

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