Aging impairs vascular function, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze whether aging-related hyperphosphatemia is implied in this effect by elucidating the role of oxidative stress. C57BL6 mice that were aged 5 months (young) and 24 months (old), receiving a standard (0.6%) or low-phosphate (0.2%) diet, were used. Isolated mesenteric arteries from old mice showed diminished endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation by the down-regulation of NOS3 expression, increased inflammation and increased fibrosis in isolated aortas, compared to those isolated from young mice. In parallel, increased Nox4 expression and reduced Nrf2, Sod2-Mn and Gpx1 were found in the aortas from old mice, resulting in oxidant/antioxidant imbalance. The low-phosphate diet improved vascular function and oxidant/antioxidant balance in old mice. Mechanisms were analyzed in endothelial (EC) and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) treated with the phosphate donor ß-glycerophosphate (BGP). In EC, BGP increased Nox4 expression and ROS production, which reduced NOS3 expression via NFκB. BGP also increased inflammation in EC. In SMC, BGP increased Collagen I and fibronectin expression by priming ROS production and NFκB activity. In conclusion, hyperphosphatemia reduced endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation and increased inflammation and vascular fibrosis through an impairment of oxidant/antioxidant balance in old mice. A low-phosphate diet achieved improvements in the vascular function in old mice.