Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) ranging from 2-200nm in diameter find applications in diverse fields. They show excellent biocompatibility and attractive physicochemical properties. Poly (ethylene) glycol (PEG) surface coatings on gold nanoparticles help in the reduction of protein adsorption, reduce nonspecific interactions with cells and greatly improve the pharmokinetics of these nanoparticles and reduce aggregation of the nanoparticles. PEG layer density depends inversely on the AuNP curvature. Denser coating was possible on smaller AuNPs. Carboxylic acid functionalized GNPs form conjugates with various protein molecules due to the electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged carboxylate groups and positively charged amino groups of protein. Since it adheres to cell membranes, it may find use in cellular and intracellular targeting in targeted drug delivery applications and also used in biodistribution studies.
Several other specific applications have been listed below:
Since they adhere to cell membranes, AuNPs may find use in cellular and intracellular targeting in targeted drug delivery applications and may also be used in biodistribution studies.
AuNPs may also be used in photothermal therapy and radiotherapy.
AuNPs ranging from 10 to 250 nm, were studied to have been absorbed primarily by liver and spleen, when injected intravenously in rats.Whereas, 10 nm nanoparticles were distributed more broadly into various organs.
Carboxylic acid end-groups binds with various proteins and can be used in targeted drug delivery and gene therapy.
Functionalized Particles have been extensively used to study cellular uptake of nanoparticles and targeted drug delivery.
1 mL in poly bottle
The PEG coating decreases the cytotoxicity and increases efficiency of GNPs in targeted drug delivery. PEG increases the stability of the nanoparticles and prevents agglomeration. Forms complexes easily with dyes and thiol ligands.
Journal of colloid and interface science, 323(2), 247-254 (2008-05-20)
We report a novel strategy for the synthesis of aqueous stable, carboxylated gold nanoparticles (GNPs) by using glutamic acid as the reducing agent. The ratio of chloroaurate ions, AuCl(-)(4) to glutamic acid was optimized in the reaction medium to obtain...
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface coatings are widely used to render stealth properties to nanoparticles in biological applications. There is abundant literature on the benefits of PEG coatings and their ability to reduce protein adsorption, to diminish nonspecific interactions with cells...
International journal of nanomedicine, 6, 2071-2081 (2011-10-07)
Gold nanoparticle toxicity research is currently leading towards the in vivo experiment. Most toxicology data show that the surface chemistry and physical dimensions of gold nanoparticles play an important role in toxicity. Here, we present the in vivo toxicity of...
Functionalized gold nanoparticles and their biomedical applications
Tiwari, P. M., Vig, K., Dennis, V. A., & Singh, S. R.