The occurrence of tin in plants, animals and humans is discussed, in relation to its abundance in the lithosphere and hydrosphere and the range of the different tin(II) and tin(IV) complexes formed. A reasoned consideration of its essentiality for living...
Hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a common finding in major depression; this may lead to increased levels of cortisol, which are known to cause oxidative stress imbalance and apoptotic neuronal cell death, particularly in the hippocampus, a key region...
Applications of tin-containing intermediates to carbohydrate chemistry.
T B Grindley
Advances in carbohydrate chemistry and biochemistry, 53, 17-142 (1998-08-26)
Tin generates a wide variety of biological activities deriving from its chemical character. In this article, the biological activities of tin compounds are reviewed with a focus on the connection with immunity. The table of contents is as follows: Introduction...
Functional variations in the mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) gene causing low levels of serum MBL are associated with susceptibility to numerous infectious diseases. We investigated whether there is genetic association of MBL2 variant alleles with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania...
Inorganic tin: chemistry, disposition and role in nuclear medicine diagnostic skeletal imaging agents.
M D Francis et al.
International journal of nuclear medicine and biology, 8(2-3), 145-152 (1981-01-01)
The newer essential trace elements, chromium, tin, nickel, vanadium and silicon.
The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 33(3), 307-313 (1974-12-01)
Adverse drug reactions and acute poisoning reviews, 7(1), 19-38 (1988-01-01)
Inorganic tin salts are poorly absorbed and rapidly excreted in the faeces; as a result they have a low toxicity. Only about 5 per cent is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, widely distributed in the body, then excreted by the...
Aluminum and tin.
J L Greger
World review of nutrition and dietetics, 54, 255-285 (1987-01-01)
Commonly used methods of analysis for tin in foods.
Journal - Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 62(6), 1251-1264 (1979-11-01)
Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association, 41(12), 1651-1662 (2003-10-18)
Tinplate is light gauge, steel sheet or strip, coated on both sides with commercially pure tin and has been used for well over a hundred years as a robust form of food packaging. Altogether, about 25,000 million food cans are...
Methods for both total and form-variable tin analysis in biological media are reviewed. While total tin analysis was common in the past, and in some cases still is, better understanding of the toxicology and toxicokinetics of organotins in biological systems...
Advances in tin compound analysis with special reference to organotin pesticide residues.
Organotin compounds (OTCs) are among the most toxic substances ever introduced to the environment by man. They are common pollutants in marine ecosystems, but are also present in the terrestrial environment, accumulated mainly in sewage sludge and landfill leachates. In...
[Current status of research on tin, an essential trace element].
Z W Ji et al.
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine], 22(6), 352-354 (1988-11-01)
General aspects of tin-free antifouling paints.
Chemical reviews, 103(9), 3431-3448 (2003-09-11)
Mutagens and potential mutagens in the biosphere. II. Metals--mercury, lead, cadmium and tin.
The Science of the total environment, 2(4), 341-371 (1974-07-01)
Genome biology and evolution, 7(6), 1490-1505 (2015-05-16)
We set out to investigate potential differences and similarities between the selective forces acting upon the coding and noncoding regions of five different sets of genes defined according to functional and evolutionary criteria: 1) two reference gene sets presenting accelerated...
Experimental studies over the last decade have suggested an association between thymus immune and homeostatic function and exogenous tin. It has been hypothesized that the thymus gland synthesizes and secretes one or more tin bearing factors that enhance immune defenses...
Are nickel, vanadium, silicon, fluorine, and tin essential for man? A review.
F H Nielsen et al.
The American journal of clinical nutrition, 27(5), 515-520 (1974-05-01)
The toxicology of tin is almost entirely the toxicology of the organic compounds of tin, for the metal itself and its inorganic compounds appear to be nearly harmless for practical purposes. Furthermore, the neurotoxicity of organotin is essentially that of...
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 56(1), 180-189 (2003-08-14)
This article reviews the literature related to the bioavailability of tin, inorganic tin compounds, and organotin compounds. On the one hand, the toxicity of metallic tin and inorganic tin compounds is low. In aqueous systems, the potential bioavailability of tin...
Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP, 4(1), 57-69 (1984-03-01)
A tolerable limit for tin concentration in canned food of 250 ppm (Fritsch et al., 1977) is generally accepted. However, biochemical effects attributable to tin have been observed even after oral administration of 1 and 3 mg Sn/kg body wt...