In several cases a correlation was found between polyamines and abiotic stress tolerance. However, the individual polyamines may have different effects, which also vary depending on the type of treatment. When applied as seed soaking or added hydroponically 0.5mM putrescine and spermidine, different changes were induced during 50µM cadmium stress in wheat plants. Seed-soaked plants were exposed to cadmium immediately after germination for 5 days, while plants pre-treated with polyamines hydroponically were stressed at age of 14 days for 7 days. Putrescine pre-treatment was beneficial both as seed soaking and applied hydroponically, while spermidine only had a protective effect in the case of seed soaking, enhancing the Cd-induced oxidative stress when were pre-treated hydroponically. The differences observed were related to the polyamine metabolism. The accumulation of endogenous putrescine beyond a certain amount may be in relation with the negative effect of hydroponic spermidine pre-treatment during Cd stress. The increased putrescine content was also correlated with the highest accumulation of Cd, salicylic acid and proline contents in plants treated with a combination of spermidine and Cd. However, the expression level of the gene encoding phytochelatin synthase was only influenced by hydroponically applied spermidine, which decreased it under cadmium stress. Changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, diamine and polyamine oxidases were also discussed.