Mycotoxins, present in a wide range of food and feed commodities, are toxic secondary metabolites produced by a number of different fungi. Certain mycotoxins do not readily degrade at high temperatures, therefore are resistant to food processing, and consequently are present in the human and animal food supply. Optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) was applied for the detection of aflatoxin B1, in a competitive immunoassay format, to compare the analytical sensitivity achieved with an immunosensor design allowing signal enhancement by increasing the sensor surface through immobilization of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of different size and origin (obtained by chemical or biotechnological synthesis). The effects of AuNPs median size, the methods of sensitization and the biochemical parameters on immunosensor performace were examined. After optimization of the sensitized sensor surface, an immunosensing method was developed for the analysis of aflatoxin in paprika matrix and the results were compared with HPLC reference measurements.