Chloroplasts evolved from a cyanobacterial endosymbiont that resided within a eukaryotic cell. Due to their prokaryotic heritage, chloroplast outer membranes contain transmembrane β-barrel proteins. While most chloroplast proteins use N-terminal transit peptides to enter the chloroplasts through the translocons at the outer and inner chloroplast envelope membranes (TOC/TIC), only one β-barrel protein, Toc75, has been shown to use this pathway. The route other β-barrel proteins use has remained unresolved. Here we use in vitro pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplast import assays and transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana to address this. We show that a paralog of Toc75, outer envelope protein 80 kD (OEP80), also uses a transit peptide but has a distinct envelope sorting signal. Our results additionally indicate that β-barrels that do not use transit peptides also enter the chloroplast using components of the general import pathway.