Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive sphingolipid, is recognized as a critical regulator in physiological and pathophysiological processes of atherosclerosis (AS). However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. As the precursor cells of endothelial cells (ECs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can prevent AS development through repairing endothelial monolayer impaired by proatherogenic factors. The present study investigated the effects of S1P on the biological features of mouse bone marrow-derived EPCs and the underlying mechanism. The results showed that S1P improved cell viability, adhesion, and nitric oxide (NO) release of EPCs in a bell-shaped manner, and migration and tube formation dose-dependently. The aforementioned beneficial effects of S1P on EPCs could be inhibited by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor of LY294002 and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor of N'-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME). The inhibitor of LY294002 inhibited S1P-stimulated activation of phosphorylated protein kinase B (AKT) (p-AKT) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) (p-eNOS), and down-regulated the level of eNOS significantly. The results suggest that S1P improves the biological features of EPCs partially through PI3K/AKT/eNOS/NO signaling pathway.