When fed a standard chow diet, CaMKK2 null mice have increased adiposity and larger adipocytes than do wild-type mice, whereas energy balance is unchanged. Here, we show that Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) is expressed in preadipocytes, where it functions as an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α kinase. Acute inhibition or deletion of CaMKK2 in preadipocytes enhances their differentiation into mature adipocytes, which can be reversed by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide-mediated activation of AMPK. During adipogenesis, CaMKK2 expression is markedly decreased and temporally accompanied by increases in mRNA encoding the early adipogenic genes CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) β and C/EBP δ. Preadipocyte factor 1 has been reported to inhibit adipogenesis by up-regulating sex determining region Y-box 9 (Sox9) expression in preadipocytes and Sox9 suppresses C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ transcription. We show that inhibition of the CaMKK2/AMPK signaling cascade in preadipocytes reduces preadipocyte factor 1 and Sox9 mRNA resulting in accelerated adipogenesis. We conclude that CaMKK2 and AMPK function in a signaling pathway that participates in the regulation of adiposity.