With only a fraction of patients responding to cancer immunotherapy, a better understanding of the entire tumor microenvironment is needed. Using single-cell transcriptomics, we chart the fibroblastic landscape during pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) progression in animal models. We identify a population of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAF) that are programmed by TGFβ and express the leucine-rich repeat containing 15 (LRRC15) protein. These LRRC15+ CAFs surround tumor islets and are absent from normal pancreatic tissue. The presence of LRRC15+ CAFs in human patients was confirmed in >80,000 single cells from 22 patients with PDAC as well as by using IHC on samples from 70 patients. Furthermore, immunotherapy clinical trials comprising more than 600 patients across six cancer types revealed elevated levels of the LRRC15+ CAF signature correlated with poor response to anti-PD-L1 therapy. This work has important implications for targeting nonimmune elements of the tumor microenvironment to boost responses of patients with cancer to immune checkpoint blockade therapy. SIGNIFICANCE: This study describes the single-cell landscape of CAFs in pancreatic cancer during in vivo tumor evolution. A TGFβ-driven, LRRC15+ CAF lineage is associated with poor outcome in immunotherapy trial data comprising multiple solid-tumor entities and represents a target for combinatorial therapy.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 161.