The serotonin (5-hydroxytrypatmine) receptor 5-HT6 (5-HT6R) has emerged as a promising target to alleviate the cognitive symptoms of neurodevelopmental diseases. We previously demonstrated that 5-HT6R finely controls key neurodevelopmental steps, including neuronal migration and the initiation of neurite growth, through its interaction with cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5). Here, we showed that 5-HT6R recruited G protein-regulated inducer of neurite outgrowth 1 (GPRIN1) through a Gs-dependent mechanism. Interactions between the receptor and either Cdk5 or GPRIN1 occurred sequentially during neuronal differentiation. The 5-HT6R-GPRIN1 interaction enhanced agonist-independent, receptor-stimulated cAMP production without altering the agonist-dependent response in NG108-15 neuroblastoma cells. This interaction also promoted neurite extension and branching in NG108-15 cells and primary mouse striatal neurons through a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent mechanism. This study highlights the complex allosteric modulation of GPCRs by protein partners and demonstrates how dynamic interactions between GPCRs and their protein partners can control the different steps of highly coordinated cellular processes, such as dendritic tree morphogenesis.