Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have neuroprotective effects, and their repair ability has been approved in neurodegenerative studies. Pregnenolone as a neurosteroid plays significant roles in neurogenesis. We aimed to consider the effect of ADSCs and pregnenolone injection on the multiple sclerosis (MS) model created by cuprizone. Male Wistar rats (n = 36) were fed with an ordinary diet or a diet with cuprizone (0.6%) for 3 weeks. H-ADSCs were taken from patients with lipoaspirate surgery. The rats were divided into six groups (n = 6): healthy, MS, sham, pregnenolone injection, ADSCs injection, pregnenolone and ADSCs injection. Behavioral test, histological examination and TEM were conducted. The specific markers for myelin and cell differentiation were assessed using immunohistochemistry staining. Additionally, the measure of MBP and MOG gene expression and the amount of related proteins were determined using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA techniques, respectively. Histologic results showed that induced demyelination in corpus callosum fibers. TEM revealed an increased thickness of myelin in fibers in the treated groups (P < 0.05). Injection of hADSC and pregnenolone significantly increased the expression levels of MBP and MOG (P < 0.001). The mean percentage of MOG and MBP markers were significantly increased in the treated groups compared to MS and sham groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, the OD level of MBP and MOG proteins showed that their values in the ADSCs/pregnenolone group were close to those of the control group without a significant difference. Our data indicated the remyelination potency and cell differentiation can improve with ADSCs and pregnenolone treatments in the multiple sclerosis model which created by cuprizone in rats.