Investigation of changes in the skin microbiome following treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) with dupilumab may provide valuable insights into the skin microbiome as a therapeutic target. The aim of this study is to assess changes in the AD skin microbiome following treatment of AD with dupilumab (n = 27). E-swabs were collected from nose, lesional, and nonlesional skin before and after 16 weeks of dupilumab therapy, and the microbiome was analyzed by 16S rRNA and tuf gene sequencing. Data for 17 patients with milder disease receiving treatment with non-targeted therapies are also presented. The results show that both groups experienced clinical improvement (p < 0.001) following dupilumab therapy and that Shannon diversity increased and bacterial community structure changed. The relative abundance of the genus Staphylococcus (S.) and S. aureus decreased, while that of S. epidermidis and S. hominis increased. No significant changes were observed for patients receiving non-targeted treatments. The increases in S. epidermidis and S. hominis and the decrease in S. aureus correlated with clinical improvement. Furthermore, changes in S. hominis and S. epidermidis correlated inversely with S. aureus. In conclusion, treatment with dupilumab significantly changed the skin microbiome and decreased S. aureus. Our results suggest a favorable role of commensal staphylococci in AD.