A graphene-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) prism coupler sensor is proposed for the rapid detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. The feasibility of the proposed sensor is demonstrated by measuring the IgG concentration in phantom mouse and human serum solutions over the range of 0-250 ng/mL. The results show that the circular dichroism and principal fast axis angle of linear birefringence increase in line with increases in IgG concentration over the considered range. Moreover, the proposed device has a resolution of 5-10 ng/mL and a response time of less than three minutes. In general, the sensor provides a promising approach for IgG detection and has significant potential for rapid infectious viral disease testing applications.