Metal orthopedic implant debris-induced osteolysis of hip bone is a major problem in patients with prosthetic-hips. Although macrophages are the principal targets for implant-wear debris, the receptor(s) and mechanisms underlying these responses are not fully elucidated. We examined whether the TLR4 pathway mediates immune response to metal-on-metal (MoM) implant-generated wear particles. Human monocytes (THP-1) were exposed to Co-alloy particles at increasing particle:cell ratio for 24 h. Challenge with particles caused up-regulation of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-8, and mediated degradation of cytosolic I-κB and nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Blocking antibodies against TLR4 or gene silencing of MyD88 and IRAK-1 prevented particle-induced I-κB/NF-κB activation response and markedly inhibited IL-8 release. Particle-mediated IL-8 response was not observed in TLR4-negative HEK293T cells; whereas transfection-based TLR4-overexpression in HEK293T enabled particle-sensitivity, as observed by I-κB degradation and IL-8 expression in response to particles. Results demonstrate that Co-alloy particles trigger immune response via the TLR4-MyD88-dependent signaling pathway.