Improvements in osteoconduction of implant biomaterials require focusing on the bone-implant interface, which is a complex multifactorial system. Surface topography of implants plays a crucial role at this interface. Nanostructured surfaces have been shown to promote serum protein adsorption and osteoblast adhesion when compared to micro-structured surfaces for bone-implant materials. We studied the influence of the serum proteins fibronectin and vitronectin on the attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts onto nanostructured titania surfaces. Human fetal osteoblastic cells hFOB 1.19 were used as model osteoblasts and were grown on nanoporous TiO2 templates, using Ti6AI4V and commercially pure Ti substrates as controls. Results show a significant increase in cell proliferation'on nanoporous TiO2 over flat substrates. Initial cell attachment data exhibited a significant effect by either fibronectin or vitronectin on cell adhesion at the surface of any of the tested materials. In addition, the extent of cell adhesion was significantly different between the nanoporous TiO2 and both Ti6AI4V and commercially pure Ti substrates, with the first showing the highest surface coverage. There was no significant difference on osteoblast attachment or proliferation between the presence of fibronectin or vitronectin using any of the material substrates. Taken together, these results suggest that the increase in osteoblast attachment and proliferation shown on the nanoporous TiO2 is due to an increase in the adsorption of fibronectin and vitronectin because of the higher surface area and to an enhanced protein unfolding, which allows access to osteoblast binding motifs within these proteins.