Anemia is a frequent symptom of diseases of alimentary tract, also in children. Among others, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease and Helicobacter pylori are most often complicated by anemia. Not infrequently these disorders are accompanied by more than one type of anemia and moreover its pathogenesis may be complex. In children with inflammatory bowel disease iron deficiency anemia is predominant, which is caused by the loss and insufficient supply of iron, but also in this group of diseases anemia of chronic diseases pose a problem. In patient with celiac disease, especially in small children, the main cause of anemia is malabsorption of iron, also its loss due to microdamage of the intestine mucosa has also been observed. In Helicobacter pylori infection the origin of anemia is still being discussed. The treatment of iron deficiency anemia (most frequent in the diseases of the alimentary tract) consists mainly of the treatment of underlying disease, supply of iron in food and in the form of drugs. Transfusions of blood ingredients are done only in severe anemia leading to hemodynamic disturbances. Iron may be supplemented either by oral or intravenous route.