In this study we demonstrate that one-dimensional (1D) nanostructured lead telluride (PbTe) can be synthesized in a hydrothermal reaction between lead foil and tellurium powder. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The formation of the 1D structure can be explained by an in situ hydrothermal rolling-up mechanism whereby PbTe is formed hydrothermally and deposited on the lead substrate. The lead underneath the PbTe layer is then selectively etched by a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide solution, thus allowing the PbTe to roll up into 1D structures. This method can be extended to prepare other 1D tellurides, including CdTe, Cu(2)Te, and Ag(2)Te.