The influence of adding burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) in the culture media on the efficacy of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in controlling postharvest decay of peaches and its possible mode of action were investigated. The antagonistic activity of R. mucilaginosa to Rhizopus decay and blue mold decay of peaches was greatly enhanced through cultivation in the nutrient yeast dextrose agar (NYDA) medium amended with BFO at the concentration of 0.32%, compared with that cultivated in NYDB without BFO. R. mucilaginosa at 1×10(8) cells/mL cultivation in the NYDB media did not reduce the natural decay incidence of peaches, compared with the control after 30 d at 4 °C followed by 7d at 20 °C. However, R. mucilaginosa cultivation in the NYDB media amended with BFO at the concentration of 0.32% reduced the natural decay incidence of peaches. The population of R. mucilaginosa harvested from NYDB amended with BFO at 0.32% increased rapidly in peach wounds compared to that harvested from NYDB without BFO no matter peaches were stored at 20 °C or 4 °C. The activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase of cell-free culture filtrate of R. mucilaginosa harvested from NYDB amended with BFO at 0.32% were higher than that at other concentrations and the control.