Pentoxifylline is a tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitor that also attenuates the immune response and decreases tissue inflammation. The association of pentoxifylline with antimony improves the cure rate of mucosal and cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this randomized and double blind pilot trial, cure rate was higher, although not significant, in patients who received antimony plus pentoxifylline than in those patients receiving antimony plus placebo. A significant decrease in TNF-α and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels during therapy was more pronounced in the antimony plus pentoxifylline group, whereas CCL-3 (Chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 3) decreased similarly in both groups. The increased levels of CXCL-9 (Chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 9) during therapy were lower in the antimony plus pentoxifylline group. Therapy with pentoxifylline modifies cytokines and chemokines production, which may be associated with therapeutic outcome.