Microbial methylation of metalloids: arsenic, antimony, and bismuth.

Microbiology and molecular biology reviews : MMBR (2002-06-01)
Ronald Bentley, Thomas G Chasteen
摘要

A significant 19th century public health problem was that the inhabitants of many houses containing wallpaper decorated with green arsenical pigments experienced illness and death. The problem was caused by certain fungi that grew in the presence of inorganic arsenic to form a toxic, garlic-odored gas. The garlic odor was actually put to use in a very delicate microbiological test for arsenic. In 1933, the gas was shown to be trimethylarsine. It was not until 1971 that arsenic methylation by bacteria was demonstrated. Further research in biomethylation has been facilitated by the development of delicate techniques for the determination of arsenic species. As described in this review, many microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, and yeasts) and animals are now known to biomethylate arsenic, forming both volatile (e.g., methylarsines) and nonvolatile (e.g., methylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid) compounds. The enzymatic mechanisms for this biomethylation are discussed. The microbial conversion of sodium arsenate to trimethylarsine proceeds by alternate reduction and methylation steps, with S-adenosylmethionine as the usual methyl donor. Thiols have important roles in the reductions. In anaerobic bacteria, methylcobalamin may be the donor. The other metalloid elements of the periodic table group 15, antimony and bismuth, also undergo biomethylation to some extent. Trimethylstibine formation by microorganisms is now well established, but this process apparently does not occur in animals. Formation of trimethylbismuth by microorganisms has been reported in a few cases. Microbial methylation plays important roles in the biogeochemical cycling of these metalloid elements and possibly in their detoxification. The wheel has come full circle, and public health considerations are again important.

材料
货号
品牌
产品描述

Sigma-Aldrich
锑, powder, -100 mesh, 99.5% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
锑, beads, 1-5 mm, low oxide, 99.999% trace metals basis
锑, rod, 20mm, diameter 4.7mm, 99.999%
锑, rod, 6mm, diameter 6mm, 99.999%
锑, foil, 50x50mm, thickness 2mm, hot-pressed
锑, foil, light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.05mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
锑, foil, light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.05mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
锑, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.015mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
锑, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.01mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
锑, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.025mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
锑, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.05mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
锑, foil, not light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.002mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
锑, foil, not light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.005mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
锑, foil, not light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.015mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
锑, foil, not light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.025mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
锑, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.002mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
锑, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.005mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
锑, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.015mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
锑, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.025mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
锑, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.05mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
锑, microfoil, 25x25mm, thinness 0.5μm, specific density 334.5μg/cm2, 6 micron aluminum permanent support, 95+%
锑, microfoil, 50x50mm, thinness 0.5μm, specific density 334.5μg/cm2, 6 micron aluminum permanent support, 95+%
锑, rod, 15mm, diameter 2.0mm, 99.99%
锑, rod, 25mm, diameter 2.0mm, 99.99%
锑, rod, 50mm, diameter 2.0mm, 99.99%
锑, rod, 50mm, diameter 4.7mm, 99.999%
锑, foil, not light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.01mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
锑, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.01mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%

社交媒体

LinkedIn icon
Twitter icon
Facebook Icon
Instagram Icon

Merck

科研、开发、生产。

作为生命科学行业的全球领先供应商,我们致力于为科研、生物技术开发和生产,以及制药药物疗法开发和生产提供各类解决方案和服务。

© 2021年版权归德国达姆施塔特默克集团(Merck KGaA)及/或其附属公司所有。版权所有。

未经许可,严禁复制本网站上的任何资料。