• 主页
  • 查找结果
  • How reliable are environmental data on 'orphan' elements? The case of bismuth concentrations in surface waters.

How reliable are environmental data on 'orphan' elements? The case of bismuth concentrations in surface waters.

Journal of environmental monitoring : JEM (2010-01-19)
Montserrat Filella
摘要

Like all elements of the periodic table, bismuth is ubiquitously distributed throughout the environment as a result of natural processes and human activities. It is present as Bi(III) in environmental, biological and geochemical samples. Although bismuth and its compounds are considered to be non-toxic to humans, its increasing use as a replacement for lead has highlighted how little is known about its environmental and ecotoxicological behaviour. In this first critical review paper on the existing information on bismuth occurrence in natural waters, 125 papers on fresh and marine waters have been collated. Although the initial objective of this study was to establish the range of the typical concentrations of total dissolved bismuth in natural waters, this proved impossible to achieve due to the wide, and hitherto unexplained, dispersion of published data. Since analytical limitations might be one of the reasons underlying value dispersion, new analytical methods published since 2000--intended to be applied to natural waters--have also been reviewed. Disappointingly, the detection limits of the bulk of them are well above those required; they are thus of limited usefulness. Analysis of the existing information on bismuth in secondary references (i.e., books, review chapters) and on its chemical speciation in seawater revealed that the uncritical reproduction of old data is a widespread practice.

材料
货号
品牌
产品描述

Sigma-Aldrich
铋, granular, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
铋, pieces, 1-12 mm, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
铋, powder, −100 mesh, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
铋, powder, −100 mesh, 99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
铋, shot, 4-30 mesh, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
铋, beads, 1-5 mm, 99.999% trace metals basis
铋, rod, 120mm, diameter 10.0mm, cast sticks, 100%
铋, foil, 25x25mm, thickness 1.0mm, 99.97%
铋, foil, 25x25mm, thickness 0.25mm, 100%
铋, foil, 25x25mm, thickness 0.5mm, 100%
铋, foil, 25x25mm, thickness 1.0mm, 100%
铋, foil, 25x25mm, thickness 2.0mm, 100%
铋, foil, 50x50mm, thickness 0.25mm, 100%
铋, foil, 50x50mm, thickness 0.5mm, 100%
铋, foil, 50x50mm, thickness 1.0mm, 100%
铋, foil, 50x50mm, thickness 1.0mm, 99.97%
铋, foil, 50x50mm, thickness 2.0mm, 100%
铋, foil, light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.01mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
铋, foil, light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.025mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
铋, foil, light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.02mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
铋, foil, light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.05mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
铋, foil, light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.015mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
铋, foil, light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.01mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
铋, foil, light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.025mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
铋, foil, light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.02mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
铋, foil, light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.05mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
铋, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.015mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
铋, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.01mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
铋, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.025mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
铋, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.02mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%

社交媒体

LinkedIn icon
Twitter icon
Facebook Icon
Instagram Icon

Merck

科研、开发、生产。

作为生命科学行业的全球领先供应商,我们致力于为科研、生物技术开发和生产,以及制药药物疗法开发和生产提供各类解决方案和服务。

© 2021年版权归德国达姆施塔特默克集团(Merck KGaA)及/或其附属公司所有。版权所有。

未经许可,严禁复制本网站上的任何资料。