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  • Expanding horizons in iron chelation and the treatment of cancer: role of iron in the regulation of ER stress and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Expanding horizons in iron chelation and the treatment of cancer: role of iron in the regulation of ER stress and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Biochimica et biophysica acta (2014-01-30)
Darius J R Lane, Thomas M Mills, Nurul H Shafie, Angelica M Merlot, Rayan Saleh Moussa, Danuta S Kalinowski, Zaklina Kovacevic, Des R Richardson
摘要

Cancer is a major public health issue and, despite recent advances, effective clinical management remains elusive due to intra-tumoural heterogeneity and therapeutic resistance. Iron is a trace element integral to a multitude of metabolic processes, including DNA synthesis and energy transduction. Due to their generally heightened proliferative potential, cancer cells have a greater metabolic demand for iron than normal cells. As such, iron metabolism represents an important "Achilles' heel" for cancer that can be targeted by ligands that bind and sequester intracellular iron. Indeed, novel thiosemicarbazone chelators that act by a "double punch" mechanism to both bind intracellular iron and promote redox cycling reactions demonstrate marked potency and selectivity in vitro and in vivo against a range of tumours. The general mechanisms by which iron chelators selectively target tumour cells through the sequestration of intracellular iron fall into the following categories: (1) inhibition of cellular iron uptake/promotion of iron mobilisation; (2) inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase, the rate-limiting, iron-containing enzyme for DNA synthesis; (3) induction of cell cycle arrest; (4) promotion of localised and cytotoxic reactive oxygen species production by copper and iron complexes of thiosemicarbazones (e.g., Triapine(®) and Dp44mT); and (5) induction of metastasis and tumour suppressors (e.g., NDRG1 and p53, respectively). Emerging evidence indicates that chelators can further undermine the cancer phenotype via inhibiting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition that is critical for metastasis and by modulating ER stress. This review explores the "expanding horizons" for iron chelators in selectively targeting cancer cells.

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铁, powder, −325 mesh, 97%
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铁, foil, thickness 0.1 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
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铁, flakes, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
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铁, foil, thickness 0.25 mm, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
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铁, wire, diam. 1.0 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
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铁, foil, 300x300mm, thickness 0.1mm, hard, 99.5%
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铁, rod, diam. 6.3 mm, 99.98% trace metals basis
铁, foil, 25x25mm, thickness 1.0mm, as rolled, 99.5%
铁, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 1.0mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
铁, foil, 25x25mm, thickness 2mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
铁, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.5mm, hard, 99.5%
铁, foil, 150x150mm, thickness 3.0mm, as rolled, 99.5%
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铁, rod, 200mm, diameter 2.0mm, as drawn, 99.99+%
铁, rod, 500mm, diameter 9.5mm, as drawn, soft ingot 99.8+%
铁, foil, 10mm disks, thickness 0.01mm, 99.85%
铁, foil, 10mm disks, thickness 0.01mm, 99.99+%
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铁, foil, 10mm disks, thickness 0.025mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
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