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  • The micro-scale synthesis of (117)Sn-enriched tributyltin chloride and its characterization by GC-ICP-MS and NMR techniques.

The micro-scale synthesis of (117)Sn-enriched tributyltin chloride and its characterization by GC-ICP-MS and NMR techniques.

Chemosphere (2014-01-30)
Kelly Peeters, Jernej Iskra, Tea Zuliani, Janez Ščančar, Radmila Milačič
摘要

Organotin compounds (OTCs) are among the most toxic substances ever introduced to the environment by man. They are common pollutants in marine ecosystems, but are also present in the terrestrial environment, accumulated mainly in sewage sludge and landfill leachates. In investigations of the degradation and methylation processes of OTC in environmental samples, the use of enriched isotopic tracers represents a powerful analytical tool. Sn-enriched OTC are also necessary in application of the isotope dilution mass spectrometry technique for their accurate quantification. Since Sn-enriched monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and tributyltin (TBT) are not commercially available as single species, "in house" synthesis of individual butyltin-enriched species is necessary. In the present work, the preparation of the most toxic butyltin, namely TBT, was performed via a simple synthetic path, starting with bromination of metallic Sn, followed by butylation with butyl lithium. The tetrabutyltin (TeBT) formed was transformed to tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) using concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl). The purity of the synthesized TBT was verified by speciation analysis using the techniques of gas chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results showed that TBT had a purity of more than 97%. The remaining 3% corresponded to DBT. TBT was quantified by reverse isotope dilution GC-ICP-MS. The synthesis yield was around 60%. The advantage of this procedure over those previously reported lies in its possibility to be applied on a micro-scale (starting with 10mg of metallic Sn). This feature is of crucial importance, since enriched metallic Sn is extremely expensive. The procedure is simple and repeatable, and was successfully applied for the preparation of (117)Sn-enriched TBTCl from (117)Sn-enriched metal.

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Sigma-Aldrich
三丁基氢化锡, contains 0.05% BHT as stabilizer, 97%
Sigma-Aldrich
锡, ≥99%, powder
Sigma-Aldrich
锡, powder, <150 μm, 99.5% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
锡, nanopowder, <150 nm particle size (SEM), ≥99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
锡, granular, 0.425-2.0 mm particle size, ≥99.5%, ACS reagent
Sigma-Aldrich
锡, foil, thickness 0.5 mm, 99.998% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
锡, powder, -100 mesh, 99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
锡, powder, <45 μm particle size, 99.8% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
锡, shot, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
锡, powder, 10 μm, 99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
四丁基锡, technical grade, 93%
Sigma-Aldrich
锡, 99.8%, shot, 3 mm
Sigma-Aldrich
三丁基氢化锡 溶液, 1 M in cyclohexane
Sigma-Aldrich
锡, wire, diam. 0.5 mm, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
锡, foil, thickness 0.127 mm, 99.9%
锡, rod, 100mm, diameter 2.0mm, 99.999+%
锡, foil, 150x150mm, thickness 0.20mm, as rolled, 98.8%
锡, foil, 0.5m coil, thickness 0.009mm, 97.4%
锡, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.125mm, as rolled, 98.8%
锡, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.125mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
锡, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.15mm, as rolled, 98.8%
锡, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.15mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
锡, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.1mm, as rolled, 98.8%
锡, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.1mm, as rolled, 99.95%
锡, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.20mm, as rolled, 98.8%
锡, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.25mm, as rolled, 98.8%
锡, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.25mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
锡, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.5mm, as rolled, 98.8%
锡, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.5mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
锡, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.65mm, as rolled, 99.99+%

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