To develop novel positron emission tomography (PET) agents for visualization and therapy monitoring of bacterial infections. It is known that maltose and maltodextrins are energy sources for bacteria. Hence, (18)F-labelled maltose derivatives could be a valuable tool for imaging bacterial infections. We have developed methods to synthesize 4-O-(α-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-deoxy-6-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucopyranoside (6-[(18)F]fluoromaltose) and 4-O-(α-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-deoxy-1-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucopyranoside (1-[(18)F]fluoromaltose) as bacterial infection PET imaging agents. 6-[(18)F]fluoromaltose was prepared from precursor 1,2,3-tri-O-acetyl-4-O-(2',3',-di-O-acetyl-4',6'-benzylidene-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-deoxy-6-nosyl-D-glucopranoside (5). The synthesis involved the radio-fluorination of 5 followed by acidic and basic hydrolysis to give 6-[(18)F]fluoromaltose. In an analogous procedure, 1-[(18)F]fluoromaltose was synthesized from 2,3, 6-tri-O-acetyl-4-O-(2',3',4',6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-deoxy-1-O-triflyl-D-glucopranoside (9). Stability of 6-[(18)F]fluoromaltose in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human and mouse serum at 37 °C was determined. Escherichia coli uptake of 6-[(18)F]fluoromaltose was examined. A reliable synthesis of 1- and 6-[(18)F]fluoromaltose has been accomplished with 4-6 and 5-8% radiochemical yields, respectively (decay-corrected with 95 % radiochemical purity). 6-[(18)F]fluoromaltose was sufficiently stable over the time span needed for PET studies (∼96% intact compound after 1-h and ∼65% after 2-h incubation in serum). Bacterial uptake experiments indicated that E. coli transports 6-[(18)F]fluoromaltose. Competition assays showed that the uptake of 6-[(18)F]fluoromaltose was completely blocked by co-incubation with 1 mM of the natural substrate maltose. We have successfully synthesized 1- and 6-[(18)F]fluoromaltose via direct fluorination of appropriate protected maltose precursors. Bacterial uptake experiments in E. coli and stability studies suggest a possible application of 6-[(18)F]fluoromaltose as a new PET imaging agent for visualization and monitoring of bacterial infections.