Helicobacter pylori eradication induces platelet recovery in a subgroup of patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (cITP), but the mechanisms involved are still not understood. We aimed to evaluate the effect of H. pylori eradication on platelet response and to identify the associated serum cytokine profile in 95 patients with cITP. Serum cytokine concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay prior to and 6 months after H. pylori eradication. Remission of cITP was observed in 17 (28·8%) of 59 patients in whom the bacterium was eradicated. Six months after treatment, a significant reduction in the concentrations of T-helper (Th) 1 and Th17 cells and an increase in T regulatory (Treg) and Th2-cell commitment cytokines were observed in patients who recovered, but not in those whose platelet count did not recover. Patients who had a platelet response to eradication of the bacteria had higher pre-treatment serum levels of γ-interferon (IFNG, IFN-γ), transforming growth factor-β (TGFB1, TGF-β) and interleukin 17 (IL17A, IL-17) than patients who did not respond, but only higher pre-treatment TGFB1 levels was independently associated with platelet response. In conclusion, amelioration of cITP after eradication of H. pylori was linked to a more efficient suppression of Th1 and Th17 response and a more pronounced Treg cell response.