Merck
  • Home
  • Search Results
  • Highly efficient extraction of anthocyanins from grape skin using deep eutectic solvents as green and tunable media.

Highly efficient extraction of anthocyanins from grape skin using deep eutectic solvents as green and tunable media.

Archives of pharmacal research (2015-11-05)
Kyung Min Jeong, Jing Zhao, Yan Jin, Seong Rok Heo, Se Young Han, Da Eun Yoo, Jeongmi Lee
ABSTRACT

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were investigated as tunable, environmentally benign, yet superior extraction media to enhance the extraction of anthocyanins from grape skin, which is usually discarded as waste. Ten DESs containing choline chloride as hydrogen bond acceptor combined with different hydrogen bond donors were screened for high extraction efficiencies based on the anthocyanin extraction yields. As a result, citric acid, D-(+)-maltose, and fructose were selected as the effective DES components, and the newly designed DES, CM-6 that is composed of citric acid and D-(+)-maltose at 4:1 molar ratio, exhibited significantly higher levels of anthocyanin extraction yields than conventional extraction solvents such as 80% aqueous methanol. The final extraction method was established based on the ultrasound-assisted extraction under conditions optimized using response surface methodology. Its extraction yields were double or even higher than those of conventional methods that are time-consuming and use volatile organic solvents. Our method is truly a green method for anthocyanin extraction with great extraction efficiency using a minimal amount of time and solvent. Moreover, this study suggested that grape skin, the by-products of grape juice processing, could serve as a valuable source for safe, natural colorants or antioxidants by use of the eco-friendly extraction solvent, CM-6.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
纯乙醇, 200 proof, for molecular biology
Sigma-Aldrich
纯乙醇, 200 proof, anhydrous, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
甘油, for molecular biology, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
盐酸, ACS reagent, 37%
Sigma-Aldrich
乙酸, glacial, ReagentPlus®, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
盐酸, ACS reagent, 37%
Sigma-Aldrich
纯乙醇, 200 proof, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
蔗糖, for molecular biology, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
氯化钾, ACS reagent, 99.0-100.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
乙酸, glacial, ACS reagent, ≥99.7%
Sigma-Aldrich
甘油, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
柠檬酸, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
甲酸, reagent grade, ≥95%
Sigma-Aldrich
蔗糖, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
甘油, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
氯化氢 溶液, 4.0 M in dioxane
Sigma-Aldrich
蔗糖, BioXtra, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
甘油, ReagentPlus®, ≥99.0% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
D- (-)-果糖, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
氯化钾, for molecular biology, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
纯乙醇, 200 proof, HPLC/spectrophotometric grade
Sigma-Aldrich
盐酸, 36.5-38.0%, BioReagent, for molecular biology
Sigma-Aldrich
盐酸 溶液, 1.0 N, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
乙酸钠, anhydrous, for molecular biology, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
盐酸, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., fuming, ≥37%, APHA: ≤10
Sigma-Aldrich
蔗糖, BioUltra, for molecular biology, ≥99.5% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
柠檬酸, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
碳酸钠, ACS reagent, anhydrous, ≥99.5%, powder or granules
Sigma-Aldrich
乙酸钠, anhydrous, ReagentPlus®, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
甲酸, ACS reagent, ≥96%