The role of cell adhesion molecules (CAM) and extracellular matrix proteins (ECM) in various pathological processes including angiogenesis, thrombosis, apoptosis, cell migration & proliferation are well documented. These processes can lead to both acute and chronic disease states such as ocular diseases, metastasis, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, stroke, osteoporosis, a wide range of inflammatory diseases, vascular remodeling, and neurodegenerative disorders. A key success in this field is evident from the potential role of the platelet GPIIb/IIIa integrin in the prevention and diagnosis of various thromboembolic disorders. Additionally, the use of soluble adhesion molecules as potential diagnostic markers for acute and chronic leukocyte, platelet, and endothelial cellular insult are increasingly utilized. The development of various therapeutic and diagnostic candidates based on the key role of CAM, with special emphasis on integrins in various diseases as well as the structure-function aspects of cell adhesion and signaling of the different CAM and ECM are highlighted.