Glioblastoma is a malignant brain tumor originating in the central nervous system. Successfully therapy of this disease required the efficient delivery of therapeutic agents to the tumor cells and tissues. Delivery of anticancer drugs using novel nanocarriers is promising in glioma treatment. Polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs), solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were constructed for the delivery of temozolomide (TMZ). The anti-tumor effects of the three kinds of nanocarriers were compared to provide the optimum choice for gliomatosis cerebri treatment. TMZ-loaded PNPs (T-PNPs), SLNs (T-SLNs), and NLCs (T-NLCs) were formulated. Their particle size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency (EE), and drug loading (DL) capacity were evaluated. Anti-tumor efficacies of the three kinds of nanocarriers were evaluated on U87 malignant glioma cells (U87 MG cells) and mice-bearing malignant glioma model. T-NLCs displayed the best anti-tumor activity than other formulations in vivo and in vitro. The most significantly glioma inhibition was observed on NLCs formulations than PNPs and SLNs. This work demonstrates that NLCs can deliver TMZ into U87MG cells more efficiently, with higher inhibition efficacy than PNPs and SLNs. T-NLCs could be an excellent drug delivery system for glioblastoma chemotherapy.