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  • Bioaccessibility and Cellular Uptake of Carotenoids Extracted from Bactris gasipaes Fruit: Differences between Conventional and Ionic Liquid-Mediated Extraction.

Bioaccessibility and Cellular Uptake of Carotenoids Extracted from Bactris gasipaes Fruit: Differences between Conventional and Ionic Liquid-Mediated Extraction.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) (2021-07-03)
Leonardo M de Souza Mesquita, Daniella Carisa Murador, Bruna Vitória Neves, Anna Rafaela Cavalcante Braga, Luciana Pellegrini Pisani, Veridiana Vera de Rosso
ABSTRACT

Currently, on an industrial scale, synthetic colorants are used in many fields, as well as those extracted with conventional organic solvents (COSs), leading to several environmental issues. Therefore, we developed a sustainable extraction and purification method mediated by ionic liquids (IL), which is considered an alternative high-performance replacement for COSs. Carotenoids are natural pigments with low bioaccessibility (BCT) and bioavailability (BV) but with huge importance to health. To investigate if the BCT and cellular uptake of the carotenoids are modified by the extraction method, we conducted a comparison assay between both extraction procedures (IL vs. COS). For this, we used the Amazonian fruit Bactris gasipaes, a rich source of pro-vitamin A carotenoids, to obtain the extract, which was emulsified and subjected to an in vitro digestion model followed by the Caco-2 cell absorption assay. The bioaccessibility of carotenoids using IL was better than those using COS (33.25%, and 26.84%, respectively). The cellular uptake of the carotenoids extracted with IL was 1.4-fold higher than those extracted using COS. Thus, IL may be a feasible alternative as extraction solvent in the food industry, replacing COS, since, in this study, no IL was present in the final extract.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Pancreatin from porcine pancreas, 4 × USP specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Fetal Bovine Serum, non-USA origin, sterile-filtered, suitable for cell culture
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MEM Non-essential Amino Acid Solution (100×), without L-glutamine, liquid, sterile-filtered, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
USP
Beta Carotene, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
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Lipase from porcine pancreas, Type II, ≥125 units/mg protein (using olive oil (30 min incubation)), 30-90 units/mg protein (using triacetin)
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Pepsin from porcine gastric mucosa, powder, ≥250 units/mg solid
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α-Amylase from porcine pancreas, Type VI-B, ≥5 units/mg solid
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Penicillin-Streptomycin, Solution stabilized, with 10,000 units penicillin and 10 mg streptomycin/mL, 0.1 μm filtered, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
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Dulbecco′s Modified Eagle′s Medium - high glucose, With 4500 mg/L glucose, L-glutamine, and sodium bicarbonate, without sodium pyruvate, liquid, sterile-filtered, suitable for cell culture