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Effects of LPS and dietary free fatty acids on MCP-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and macrophages in vitro.

Nutrition & diabetes (2014-03-26)
K B Cullberg, J Ø Larsen, S B Pedersen, B Richelsen

High levels of free fatty acids (FFA) have been suggested to be one of the underlying mechanisms for adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and dysfunction in obesity. Human AT produces several adipokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), which are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-mediated inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and a panel of dietary FFA on MCP-1 gene and protein expression in adipocytes and macrophages. Furthermore, we investigated whether the effect of LPS and FFA were mediated through the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). 3T3-L1 adipocytes and THP-1 macrophages were incubated for 24 h with the following FFA: monounsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid), saturated fatty acid (palmitic acid) and trans fatty acid (elaidic acid; 500 μM) with and without LPS (2 ng ml(-1)), and MCP-1 and TLR4 mRNA expression and MCP-1 protein secretion was determined. The results showed that LPS significantly increased MCP-1 and TLR4 expression and MCP-1 secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and that the MCP-1 expression was blocked by a TLR4 inhibitor (CLI095). The effects of the various FFA on MCP-1 mRNA expression and protein secretion in the adipocytes showed no significant changes either alone or in combination with LPS. In macrophages, palmitic acid increased MCP-1 mRNA expression by 1.8-fold (P<0.05), but oleic acid and elaidic acid had no effects. In conclusion, in 3T3-L1 adipocyte, the TLR4-agonist, LPS, stimulates the proinflammatory chemokine MCP-1. The different classes of FFA did not induce MCP-1 mRNA expression or protein secretion in the adipocytes, but the saturated FFA, palmitic acid, induced MCP-1 mRNA expression in macrophages, possibly because of the higher expression level of TLR4 in the macrophages than the adipocytes. Our results indicate that FFA may induce AT inflammation through proinflammatory stimulation of macrophages.

Product Number
Product Description

Bovine Serum Albumin, heat shock fraction, suitable for RIA, pH 5.2, ≥96%
Lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli O26:B6, ≥10,000 EU/mg, purified by phenol extraction
Palmitic acid, ≥99%
Elaidic acid, ≥99.0% (GC)
Oleic acid, ≥99% (GC)
Bovine Serum Albumin Fraction V, fatty acid free, from bovine serum