Plasmid DNA vaccines encoding the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface and hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope antigens, respectively, were constructed, and attempt were made to find the possibility of a divalent vaccine against HBV and HCV. The expression of each plasmid in Cos-1 cells was confirmed using immunocytochemistry. To measure the induced immune response by these plasmids in vivo, female BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with 100 microg of either both or just one of the plasmids. Anti-HBV and HCV-specific antibodies and related cytokines were evaluated to investigate the generation of both humoral and cellular immune responses. As a result, specific anti-HBV and anti-HCV serum antibodies from mice immunized with these plasmids were observed using immunoblot. The levels of IL-2 and RANTES showing a Th1 immune response were significantly increased, but there was no change in the level of IL-4 (Th2 immune response) in any of the immunized groups. Compared with each plasmid DNA vaccine, the combined vaccine elicited similar immune responses in both humoral and cell-mediated immunities. These results suggest that the combined DNA vaccine can induce not only comparable immunity experimentally without antigenic interference, but also humoral and Th1 dominant cellular immune responses. Therefore, they could serve as candidates for a simultaneous bivalent vaccine against HBV and HCV infections.