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  • Novel Clofarabine-Based Combinations with Polyphenols Epigenetically Reactivate Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta, Inhibit Cell Growth, and Induce Apoptosis of Breast Cancer Cells.

Novel Clofarabine-Based Combinations with Polyphenols Epigenetically Reactivate Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta, Inhibit Cell Growth, and Induce Apoptosis of Breast Cancer Cells.

International journal of molecular sciences (2018-12-14)
Katarzyna Lubecka, Agnieszka Kaufman-Szymczyk, Barbara Cebula-Obrzut, Piotr Smolewski, Janusz Szemraj, Krystyna Fabianowska-Majewska
要旨

An epigenetic component, especially aberrant DNA methylation pattern, has been shown to be frequently involved in sporadic breast cancer development. A growing body of literature demonstrates that combination of agents, i.e. nucleoside analogues with dietary phytochemicals, may provide enhanced therapeutic effects in epigenetic reprogramming of cancer cells. Clofarabine (2-chloro-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxyarabinosyladenine, ClF), a second-generation 2'-deoxyadenosine analogue, has numerous anti-cancer effects, including potential capacity to regulate epigenetic processes. Our present study is the first to investigate the combinatorial effects of ClF (used at IC50 concentration) with epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, tea catechin) or genistein (soy phytoestrogen), at physiological concentrations, on breast cancer cell growth, apoptosis, and epigenetic regulation of retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB) transcriptional activity. In MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, RARB promoter methylation and expression of RARB, modifiers of DNA methylation reaction (DNMT1, CDKN1A, TP53), and potential regulator of RARB transcription, PTEN, were estimated using methylation-sensitive restriction analysis (MSRA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), respectively. The combinatorial exposures synergistically or additively inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells, followed by RARB hypomethylation with concomitant multiple increase in RARB, PTEN, and CDKN1A transcript levels. Taken together, our results demonstrate the ability of ClF-based combinations with polyphenols to promote cancer cell death and reactivate DNA methylation-silenced tumor suppressor genes in breast cancer cells with different invasive potential.

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α,α-Dicyanoethyl acetate, 98%